Notice of Retraction Digital Image Steganography Using Bit Flipping

Aditya Kumar Sahu, Gandharba Swain


Notice of Retraction

After careful and considered review of the content of this paper by a duly constituted expert committee, this paper has been found to be in violation of IAES's Publication Principles.

We hereby retract the content of this paper. Reasonable effort should be made to remove all past references to this paper.

The presenting author of this paper has the option to appeal this decision by contacting


This article proposes bit flipping method to conceal secret data in the original image. Here a section consists of 2 pixels and there by flipping one or two LSBs of the pixels to hide secret information in it. It exists in 2 variants. The variant-1 and variant-2 both use 7th and 8th bit to conceal the secret data. Variant-1 hides 3 bits per a pair of pixels and the variant-2 hides 4 bits per a pair of pixels. Our proposed method notably raises the capacity as well as bits per pixel that can be hidden in the image compared to existing bit flipping method. The image steganographic parameters such as, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), hiding capacity, and the quality index of the proposed techniques has been compared with the existing bit flipping technique



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