About Decentralized Swarms of Asynchronous Distributed Cellular Automata Using Inter-Planetary File System's Publish-Subscribe Experimental Implementation

Vincent Manuceau

Abstract


This article describes the simple implementation of asynchronous distributed cellular automata and decentralized swarms of asynchronous distributed cellular automata built on top of Inter-Planetary File System's Publish-Subscribe (IPFS pubsub) experimentation. Various Publish-Subscribe models are described.
As an illustration example, two distributed versions and a decentralized swarm version of a 2D elementary cellular automaton are thoroughly detailed to highlight the simplicity of implementation with IPFS and the inner workings of these kinds of cellular automata.
Both algorithms were implemented, and experiments were conducted throughout five datacenters of Grid'5000 testbed in France to obtain preliminary performance results in terms of network bandwidth usage.
This work is prior to implementing a large-scale decentralized epidemic propagation modelling and prediction system based upon asynchronous distributed cellular automata with application to the current epidemic of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19).

Keywords


Cellular Automata; IPFS; Publish-Subscribe; Distributed Cellular Automata; Grid'5000

References


J. Santos, N. Santos and D. Dias, ”Censorship-resistant web annotations based on ethereum and IPFS,” In Proceedings of the 35th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC ’20). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, doi: 10.1145/3341105.3374049, pp. 2211—2213, 2020.

A. J. Collados-Lara, E. Pardo-Igúzquiza and D. Pulido-Velazquez, ”A distributed cellular automata model to simulate potential future impacts of climate change on snow cover area,” Advances in Water Resources, vol.124, ISSN 0309-1708, pp. 106–119, 2019.

J. Benet, ”IPFS - Content Addressed, Versioned, P2P File System,” arXiv Networking and Internet Architecture, arXiv:1407.3561, 2014.

S. Ulam, ”On some Mathematical Properties Connected with Patterns of Growth of Figures,” Proceedings of Symposia on Applied Mathematics, vol.14, pp. 215–224, 1962.

J. Neumann and A. Burks, ”Theory Of Self Reproducing Automata,” University of Illinois Press, 1st ed., ISBN 0252727339, 1966.

V. Christianto, V. Krasnoholovets, and F. Smarandache, ”Cellular Automata Representation of Submicroscopic Physics,” Prespacetime Journal, QuantumDream, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1024–1036, December 2019.

P.M.A. Sloot, J.A. Kaandorp, A.G. Hoekstra and B. Overeinder, ”Distributed cellular automata: Large scale simulation of natural phenomena,” Solutions to Parallel and Distributed Computing Problems: Lessons from Biological Sciences, Computer Centre University of Tromso, January 2001.

H. Huang, J. Lin, B. Zheng, Z. Zheng and J. Bian, ”When Blockchain Meets Distributed File Systems: An Overview, Challenges, and Open Issues,” IEEE Access, vol. 8, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2979881, pp. 50574–50586, 2020.

D. Dias, J. Benet, ”Distributed web applications with IPFS,” 16th International Conference on Web Engineering (ICWE), Lugano, Switzerland, 2016.

S. S. Hasan, N. H. Sultan and F. A. Barbhuiya, ”Cloud Data Provenance using IPFS and Blockchain Technology,” In Proceedings of the Seventh International Workshop on Security in Cloud Computing (SCC ’19). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, doi: 10.1145/3327962.3331457, pp. 5–12, 2019.

CryptoLab, ”Filecoin: A decentralized storage network,” Protocol Labs, July 2017.[Online]. Available: https://research.protocol.ai/publications/filecoin-a-decentralized-storage-network. [Accessed: 12-Sep-2020].

S. He, Y. Lu, Q. Tang, G. Wang, C. Qishi Wu, ”Peer-to-Peer Content Delivery via Blockchain,” arXiv

Cryptography and Security, arXiv:2102.04685, 2016.

J. P. de Araujo, ”A communication-efficient causal broadcast publish/subscribe system,” PhD Thesis, Sorbonne Université, pp. 19-21, 2019.

V. Santos, ”Js-libp2p-floodsub”, Libp2p, December 2020. [Online]. Available: https://github.com/libp2p/js-libp2p-floodsub. [Accessed: 14-Feb-2021].

D. Dias, ”PubSub at Scale - Open Problems,” Protocol Labs, September 2020. [Online]. Available: https://github.com/protocol/ResNetLab/blob/master/OPEN PROBLEMS/PUBSUB AT SCALE.md. [Accessed: 20-Feb-2021].

R.Baldoni, R. Beraldi, V. Quema, L. Querzoni and S. Tucci-Piergiovanni, ”TERA: topic-based event routing for peer-to-peer architectures,” DEBS ’07 : Proceedings of the First ACM International Conference on Distributed Event-Based Systems, doi:10.1145/1266894.1266898, pp. 2–13, January 2007.

D. Vyzovitis, Y. Napora, D. McCormick, D. Dias and Y. Psaras, ”GossipSub: Attack-Resilient Message Propagation in the Filecoin and ETH2.0 Networks,” In Proceedings of Protocol Labs TechRep (PL-TechRep-2020-002), Protocol Labs, arXiv:2007.02754, 2020.

”Publish / Subscribe - Libp2p Concepts,” Libp2p Documentation [Online]. Available: https://docs.libp2p.io/concepts/publish-subscribe. [Accessed: 19-Feb-2021].

D. Vyzovitis, ”Gossipsub v1.1: Security extensions to improve on attack resilience and bootstrapping,” Libp2p, December 2020. [Online]. Available: https://github.com/libp2p/specs/blob/master/pubsub/gossipsub/gossipsub-v1.1.md. [Accessed: 2-Feb-2021].

D. Vyzovitis, ”Episub: Proximity Aware Epidemic PubSub for libp2p,” Libp2p, June 2019. [Online]. Available: https://github.com/libp2p/specs/ blob/master/pubsub/gossipsub/episub.md. [Accessed: 14-Feb-2021].

J. Leitao, J. Pereira and L. Rodrigues, ”Epidemic Broadcast Trees,” 2007 26th IEEE International Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS 2007), Beijing, China, doi: 10.1109/SRDS.2007.27, pp.301–310, 2007.

J. Leitao, J. Pereira and L. Rodrigues, ”HyParView: A Membership Protocol for Reliable Gossip-Based Broadcast,” 37th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN’07), Edinburgh, UK, doi: 10.1109/DSN.2007.56, pp. 419-429, 2007.

C. Tang, R. N. Chang and C. Ward, ”GoCast: gossip-enhanced overlay multicast for fast and dependable group communication,” 2005 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN’05), Yokohama, Japan, doi: 10.1109/DSN.2005.52, pp. 140-149, 2005.

S. Wolfram, ”A New Kind of Science,” Wolfram Media, ISBN 9781579550080, pp. 231–249, 2002.

T. Toffoli and N. Margolus, ”Cellular Automata Machines: A New Environment for Modeling,” MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, ISBN 0262200600, ch. 7, 1987.

V. Manuceau, ”About Decentralized Swarms of Asynchronous Distributed Cellular Automata using IPFS,” GitHub, July 2021.[Online]. Available: https://github.com/vincent-manuceau/Decentralized Cellular Automata over IPFS. [Accessed: 30-Aug-2021].

F. Desprez and L. Nussbaum, ”The data-centers facet of SILECS (A.K.A. Grid’5000)” SILECS/Datacenters - Grid’5000, April 2019.[Online]. Available: https://www.grid5000.fr/mediawiki/images/Grid5000.pdf. [Accessed: 30-Aug-2021].




DOI: http://doi.org/10.11591/ijict.v11i1.pp%25p

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View IJICT Stats